Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is a leading cause of illness and death among one-third of women globally. Prevalence of VAWG is alarmingly high. Large studies among South African men found that 32% used violence towards partners, and 28% of men have ever raped.
We know that some beliefs about manhood contribute to men’s harmful health behaviors, including their use of violence. Research suggests that men who equate manhood with toughness, aggression, power over women, heavy use of alcohol, and the pursuit of many sexual partners are more likely to use violence.